Knowledge Hub

The why, what and how of carbon removals

This is where we  will share resources about what is happening in carbon removals. We’re starting off with some of our favourites. Send over what you find useful, so we can build up an easy-to-use Knowledge Hub. 2023 Mid-Year Progress Report's half year report provides a fascinating glimpse into the CDR market, showing massive growth in purchasing - now at 4.1 million tonnes for the year with a forecast of 7 million tonnes to the end of the year (but just 34,000 tonnes already delivered). This succint report analyses the progress made and what's needed - 40-50% compound annual growth rate over the next 27 years to get to the gigatonne scale needed.

Criteria for High-Quality Carbon Dioxide Removal

After three years of experience buying carbon removals, Microsoft has updated its quality criteria. Its aim is provide a clear framework for suppliers and help to advance a common definition of high-quality CDR that will support the market as it matures.

Carbon Removal Playbook

Boulder County has collaborated with Carbon Direct to create a playbook for developing local carbon dioxide removal strategies. The resulting “Best Practices for Local Carbon Removal and Resilience Strategies” and a companion report, “Carbon Removal Strategies for Local Communities” are both available to download now.

State of CDR Report

High-level global assessment informing on the state of CDR and the gap we need to close. Its aim is to build a community, bridge data gaps and support the scale up of CDR responsibly and equitably.


"One market, 22 verticals, and 311 companies." This is the 2023 Market Map of the “New” Voluntary Carbon Market from Click to download your copy.

European Commission certification of carbon removals

The European Commission's proposal for certifying durable and short-term carbon removals, to be sandbox-tested and adapted.

Shopify’s carbon removals buyers guide

This carbon removals buyer’s guide from Shopify is a must read; it includes how to persuade people in your organisation to want to buy, what criteria to use when buying, what to look for and where, how to build a portfolio, and how to buy/retire removals. It also provides sample documents such as terms and conditions and spreadsheets for tracking the suppliers in your portfolio, etc.

One stop jobs market for carbon removal projects

Looking for a career in Carbon Removal or talented people to work on your CDR project? Check out this dedicated jobs board to find or add the perfect post. This community-focused tool aims to catalyse talent into the industry. Its developers are also looking for feedback to improve the website; lend a hand via the link in their ‘about’ section.

Tracking carbon removals is the data visualisation website we’ve been waiting for. It tracks purchases, deliveries, and verifications of 100+ year permanent carbon removal via clear, readable metrics and leaderboards. Information at your fingertips and a listing to arouse some healthy competition. Submit your own data or just check out who is doing what to make carbon removal a reality.

A playbook for DAC Hubs

The US Department of Energy is providing $3.5 billion in funding through the direct air capture hubs programme. This playbook lays out recommendations to make gigaton-scale hubs that create robust benefits for the environment and local communities - building a foundation for the future of carbon removals.

List of known CDR purchases

Robert Hoglund has done a great service by producing this google sheet with an up-to-the-minute list of carbon removal transactions. This is the bottom-up view of what suppliers and buyers are doing in reality.

What the IPCC says about carbon removals

If you want to understand what the IPCC says about the role of carbon removals in climate mitigation read Eli Mitchell-Larson's brilliant twitter thread.

Mind the Gap

Influential multi-stakeholder report from the Energy Transitions Commission showing that between 70-225 billion tonnes of cumulative carbon removals by 2050 to keep 1.5 degrees alive. The report explores the potential of a portfolio of solutions.

DAC on track in 180 days

How the US Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act is investing billions in direct air capture at scale.

Proposed EU policy on removals

Proposals for accelerating engineered removals and upscaling carbon farming. Plan to draft regulatory framework by end of 2022.

Microsoft’s million-tonne CO2 removal purchase – lessons for net zero

Microsoft’s mission to remove its historical emissions required a complete rethink of how corporate buyers could engage in supporting removals rather than relying on the carbon offsets market. Along with Stripe and Shopify, these tech companies not only hold the lessons for other companies but are actively passing them on.

CDR Primer

Compiled by the brilliant Jenn Wilcox (now making carbon removals policy at the US Department of Energy), this CDR Primer explains the science behind carbon removals – from why it’s needed, to how it works.

Carbon Removal Policy Tracker

Carbon180's easy to use guide to navigating US legislation on carbon removal.

New EU Climate law

New EU Climate law delivers innovative policy framework to advance carbon removal and avoid moral hazard.

Reaching climate objectives: the role of carbon dioxide removals

This consultation paper is an attempt to assess the appropriate and feasible role of carbon removals in 1.5DC pathways by quantifying ‘remaining’ emissions from hard-to-abate sectors. It makes an interesting distinction between emissions from energy use/manufacturing and from agriculture/land-use – effectively ringfencing natural removals to the latter. ETC estimates that, cumulatively, around 200 Gt of carbon dioxide would need to be removed by 2050.

Carbon Removal Newsroom

A 30-minute weekly podcast on what is happening in carbon removals technologies, policy, deployment and markets. Hosted by Radhika Moolgavkar of the Nori market platform and guests. US based but looks more broadly. Great way to keep up and start understanding the implications.

The Carbon Copy

Biweekly newsletter from Carbon 180 providing an insightful perspective on progress in specific areas of carbon removals.

Carbon Removal Academy

A collection of ‘reading’ materials for the AirMiners’ Boot Up online crash course covering different approaches to carbon removal – soil, forests, biomass, direct air capture, mineralisation, oceans and carbon tech. The list is divided by level of knowledge and depth of interest, and contains a fabulous collection of articles, video interviews, podcasts, blogs and scientific papers.

CDR Database

CarbonPlan has a slew of useful reports and tools. This one is a downloadable database of carbon removal companies that Microsoft and Stripe are supporting. The list can be filtered by approach, volume and permanence and is ranked based on these criteria and additionality.

Removing forward: Centering Equity and Justice in a Carbon-removing Future

Ground-breaking report explores five guiding principles for just carbon removal, with a focus that is local (who benefits), global between north and south, and intergenerational.

A Progressive Platform for Carbon Removal, Summary for Policymakers

Phase II Report

Latest working report from the initiative started by Mark Carney to develop a reliable and well-governed voluntary carbon market. The Taskforce has struggled to gain consensus on the role of carbon offsets in tackling climate change.

What is good net zero?

SBTI is working hard to develop a science-based methodology for including carbon removals as part of ‘good’ net zero strategies. Its Net Zero Standard (including criteria, guidance and tools) will be published ahead of COP26. This blog piece describes the issues and the process it is following, with links to the background reports and advisors involved. A key space to watch.

Carbon Removal Source Materials

Stripe’s github contains all its template review forms and purchase agreements (including funding terms for purchase and R&D, technical milestones, renewal criteria etc), plus links to videos. Radical transparency is baked into its agreements to accelerate pick up.

Zero, then Negative: The Congressional Blueprint for Scaling Carbon Removal

Global Warming of 1.5°C

This report kickstarted the debate around carbon removals by showing it was a necessary part of any 1.5 pathway. Reaching net zero emissions by 2050 means removing any remaining emissions, from sectors such as aviation or cement, and remaining negative thereafter. The IPCC scenarios require between 5 billion and 10 billion tonnes of carbon removal a year by 2050 – and cumulatively up to 1,000 billion tonnes of carbon removals by 2100.

How to Kick Start the Carbon Removal Market: Shopify’s Playbook

Shopify’s approach to selecting and supporting impactful suppliers of carbon removals, including its research templates, performance criteria, lessons from year one and thoughts on the future.

Confronting mitigation deterrence in low-carbon scenarios, Environmental Research Letters

This paper from the Grantham Institute and Imperial College London addresses the moral hazard issue – that focusing on carbon removals can dilute incentives to reduce emissions, but failure to deploy removals requires even steeper reduction curves. The paper finds evidence that mitigation deterrence can occur, and recommends formally separating out targets and strategies for reductions and removals.

The Physical Science Basis, AR6

The first of the sixth round of IPCC Assessment Reports focuses on the realities of climate change but it makes that carbon removals are urgently needed – and that planting trees alone won’t do it. It estimates the remaining carbon budget for a 1.5DC scenario at 400-500 billion tonnes of CO2 from the start of 2020, with human activities currently emitting around 40 billion tonnes of CO2 each year. Within this decade, in other words, annual carbon removals equal to or greater than annual emissions are needed to stabilise or ideally reverse aspects of climate change.

Carbon Removal Corporate Action Tracker

Periodically updated tracker of corporate carbon removal pledges across all sectors from the Institute for Carbon Removal Law & Policy at the American University in Washington DC.

Carbon removal, Lessons from an early corporate purchase

Microsoft set the transparency bar high with this report on how it developed and implemented its carbon removal strategy, following proposals from over 200 companies. It highlights the gaps around permanency and leakage in carbon accounting and calls for significantly higher removal standards, the limitations Includes sample contract language and list of prerequisites.
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